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1. Nursing home/child-care workers 1. 保姆/护工
  Personal-care providers top the list, with nearly 11% of people in this field reporting a bout of major depression. (The rate is 13% in the unemployed; 7% in the general population。) “It is stressful, seeing people sick and not getting a lot of positive reinforcement。” 保姆/护工的压力排名第一。将近11%的保姆有过一次严重抑郁的经历。(该比率在失业者中是13%,在普通人群中的是7%。) “这份工作的压力真的非常大,整天照看病人,又始终得不到正面的反馈支持。”有护工这样说。
  A typical day can include feeding, bathing, and caring for others who are “often incapable of expressing gratitude or appreciation…because they are too ill or too young or they just aren’t in the habit of it,” says Christopher Willard, clinical psychologist at Tufts University and author of Child’s Mind. 塔夫斯大学的临床精神科专家和儿童心理学的作者克里斯托佛威尔德(Christopher Willard)说,保姆或护工每天的工作就是给那些没有办法表达感激的人喂食、洗澡和提供照顾,而那些被照顾的人要么病得太重、要么年纪太小,要么根本不习惯表达感谢。
  2. Food service staff2. 餐厅服务员
  Ranking just below professional-care workers are the people who are serving the food at your favorite local digs. Wait staff often get low pay and can have exhausting jobs with numerous people telling them what to do each day. While 10% of workers in general reported an episode of major depression in the past year, almost 15% of women in this field did so. 排在保姆/护工之后的是饭馆服务员。这些人通常工资很低又工作辛苦,每天都有数不清的人告诉他们应该做什么。 有10%的工作者在过去一年经历过严重抑郁,而有15%的餐厅女服务员也是这样。
  “This is often a very thankless job,” Legge says. “People can be really rude and there is a lot of physical exertion. When people are depressed, it is hard to have energy and motivation—when you have to be on, it is difficult。”莱格博士说“饭馆服务员是个费力不讨好的工作。接受服务的人有时真的很粗鲁,同时这项工作又非常需要体力。人们沮丧时,很难获得工作的能量和动力,但同时又不得不拼命工作,这确实非常困难。”
  3. Social workers3. 社工
  It’s probably not a huge surprise to find social workers near the top of this list. Dealing with abused children or families on the brink of every imaginable crisis—combined with bureaucratic red tape—can make for a demanding, stressful job that’s often 24-7. 社工位于这项调查的前列应该并不奇怪。每天都要面对不可想象的危机——受虐的儿童,濒临破碎的家庭,再加上官僚作风的繁文缛节,使得这份工作的压力非常大,而且通常需要24小时待命。
  “There can be a culture that says that to do a good job, you have to work really hard and often make sacrifices,” Willard says. 威尔德说“做好一份工作就必须十分努力,并且经常做出牺牲,这已经成了某种社会文化。”
  “Because social workers work with people who are so needy, it can be hard to not sacrifice too much to the job. I see that happen a lot with social workers and other caring professions, and they get really burned out pretty quickly。” “由于社工的工作对象是那些极度需要帮助的人群,所以他们在工作中不做出极大的牺牲是不可能的。我见到许多这样的例子,他们确实很快就会筋疲力尽。”
  4. Health-care workers 4. 医护工作者
  This includes doctors, nurses, therapists, and other professions that attract people who might end up giving a lot without saving a little for themselves. Health-care workers can have long, irregular hours and days in which other people’s lives are literally in their hands. In other words, the stress can be off the charts. 医护工作者包括医生、护士、治疗师和其他类似的专业人员,这份职业看起来似乎挺吸引人,其实他们很可能付出了很多,但到头来什么也没得到。医护工作者不但工作时间超长、没有规律,而且总是处在生死攸关的关头。 换而言之,压力大得无以言表。
  “Every day they are seeing sickness, trauma, and death and dealing with family members of patients,” Willard says. “It can shade one’s outlook on the whole that the world is a sadder place。”威尔德说:“他们每天都面对病痛、外伤和死亡,还要和患者的家属交涉。他们的眼前一片灰暗,目之所及的地方都是悲惨世界。”
  5. Artists, entertainers, writers5. 艺术家、艺人、作家
  These jobs can bring irregular paychecks, uncertain hours, and isolation. 这些工作收入不稳定,工作时间不固定,而且要承受孤独寂寞。
  Creative people may also have higher rates of mood disorders; about 9% reported an episode of major depression in the previous year. In men, it’s the job category most likely to be associated with an episode of major depression (nearly 7% in full-time workers). 艺术家通常患精神失常的危险性更大,有约9%的人在过去一年内经历了重度抑郁,特别是此类工作中的男性,患重度抑郁的比率最高(全职工作的男性中有接近7%患重度抑郁)。
  “One thing I see a lot in entertainers and artists is bipolar illness,” says Legge. “There could be undiagnosed or untreated mood disorders in people who are artistic…. Depression is not uncommon to those who are drawn to work in the arts, and then the lifestyle contributes to it。” 莱格说“我经常见到艺人和艺术家患两极化(抑郁和躁狂)疾病。他们的精神紊乱很多未被诊断或治疗。在艺术领域工作的人,抑郁非常普遍,这与他们的生活方式有一定联系。”
  6. Teachers6. 教师
  The demands on teachers seem to be constantly growing. Many work after school and then take work home. In many areas, they learn to do a lot with a little. 社会对教师的要求似乎在不断增加。许多老师课后还有大量的工作,甚至需要把工作带回家。 在很多方面,他们都得学会利用有限的资源开展十分繁重的工作。
  “There are pressures from many different audiences—the kids, their parents, and the schools trying to meet standards, all (of which) have different demands,” Willard says. “This can make it difficult for teachers to do their thing and remember the reason they got started in the field。”威尔德说“各方面都对老师造成压力:孩子、家长、学校,各方面又有各自不同的要求。这使得老师们难以开展他们的工作,也容易使他们失去当初从事教育事业的初衷。”
  7. Administrative support staff 7. 行政助理人员
  People in this field can suffer from a classic case of high demand, low control. 这项职业是典型的高要求低控制。
  They are on the front line, taking orders from all directions. But they are also at the bottom of the totem pole in terms of control and “everything filters down,” according to Legge. 莱格说:“他们总工作在前线,接受来自四面八方的指挥。他们可能处于最底层,要受上级的掌控和各级人员的层层管理。“
  They can have unpredictable days and may not be acknowledged for all of the work that they do to make life easier for everyone else. ”他们每天的日子都不好过,做的工作也可能不被认可。”
  8. Maintenance and grounds workers8. 维修工人和水管工人
  How would you like to be called on only when something goes wrong? That’s essentially what maintenance people deal with each day. 只有出现问题的时候人们才找你会是什么感觉?这就是维修工人每天必须面对的。
  They also have to work odd hours, seasonal or varied schedules, and frequent night shifts. They are often paid little for a tough job that can include cleaning up other people’s messes. 他们的工作还不定时,通常需要值夜班。他们要去收拾他人制造的烂摊子,而薪水却少得可怜。
  “There is also higher turnover. In terms of co-workers, they are often isolated, and it can be dangerous work,” Willard says. 威尔德说:“维修工人的流动率很大,使得他们的合作伙伴都不固定,所以他们总觉得孤独,另外他们工作的危险性也很大。”
  9. Financial advisors and accountants9. 理财顾问和会计
  Stress. Stress. Stress. Most people don’t like dealing with their own retirement savings. So can you imagine handling thousands or millions of dollars for other people? 压力,压力,压力。大多数人都不喜欢处理自己的退休储蓄。你可以想象为别人处理数千万元的储蓄吗?
  “There is so much responsibility for other people’s finances and no control of the market,” Legge says. “There is guilt involved, and when (clients) are losing money, they probably have people screaming at them with regularity。” 莱格说“为别人理财需要承担太大的责任,而又无法控制整个市场。有时会还涉及犯罪,当他们亏损时,通常会被客户责备辱骂。”
  10. Salespeople10. 销售人员
  People who work in sales are No. 10 on the list, though there are a whole host of reasons why the job could contribute to depression. 虽然有很多人认为这份工作肯定压力很大,但销售人员仅排名第十。
  Many salespeople work on commission, meaning you never know exactly when your next paycheck is coming. They may travel, and have to spend time away from home, family, and friends. If they work independently, benefits may also be limited。很多销售人员是靠佣金生活的,这也意味着他们不知道下一笔付款什么时候会到。他们需要经常出差,所以很多时间都不在家人和朋友身边。如果他们是独立工作,那么他们的收入也有限。
  “This uncertainty of income, tremendous pressure for results, and long hours” can make for a high-stress occupation, Legge says. 莱格说“收入不稳定、大量压力、超长工作时间造成了这份高压力的工作。”


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